Panamax ship Aggregates Information and data

Since the Dawn of Recorded History ...

Source: a circular put out by
the National Aggregates Association...

Pyramids of Ancient Egypt Many forms of water clocks were used in Ancient Egypt, but were later replaced by sandglasses. The advantages of sand over water were obvious. Sand did not evaporate or spill over, and never needed refilling. It did not depend on sunlight for operation.
The Egyptians combined blocks and slabs of stone in massive masonry structures by using sand in their mortar it was not unusual for Roman roads to be made of broken stone.
During the Greek and Roman periods, sand, gravel and volcanic rock and dust were used in the manufacturing of concrete - some of these Roman structures remain standing even today.
Colloseum In ancient times, concrete was made as an artificial conglomerate of gravel and broken stone with sand and lime or cement. Vitruvius, a Roman architect and engineer and Pliny, a Roman scholar, refined the specifications of cisterns as having five parts of pure gravelly sand, two parts of the most durable quicklime, and pieces of hard lava weighing less than a pound each; when united, iron rammers would be used to beat the bottom and sides.
In medieval Europe, castles were built of various types of stone. When construction was completed, the structure was painted or whitewashed so that it would be one color.
The hourglass, an amazingly accurate device that used sand in the Middle Ages, is also known today as the traditional sign of Father Time.
Hourglasses and other timing devices utilizing sand were used by the British Navy as late as 1839 for approximate timekeeping. Standard equipment included an hourglass, a half-hour glass, and an eight minute glass. Timing devices using sand are still in common use today; they are used for cooking eggs and in children's board games.
Sand and Gravel uses Sand was sold commercially for home and commercial building construction and for mortar used in home and building construction.
In the 1850's and 60's, railroads were substantial users of gravel. This material was used for roadbed construction and ballast to support the ties.
Around the turn of the century, independent operators were digging gravel for use on streets and roads. Spring thaws turned dirt roads into quagmires; whereas gravel roads had both strength and drainage capabiltity.
The development of the automobile in the early 1900's created an immediate demand for surfaced roadways, and aggregates production increased tremendously for use in aggregate-surfaced roads and base courses, as well as in asphaltic concrete and portland cement concrete road pavements.
During both World Wars, the aggregates industry played a key role in the construction of defense plants and other related facilities.
Throughout World War 11, airfields were constructed in China by hand, thanks to the hard work of thousands of Chinese who pulled rollers over stone to create surfaces suitable for takeoffs and landings.
Click for next page ....

    This page :