Panamax ship Aggregates Information and data

What Aggregates Are ...

 
Source: http://wrgis.wr.usgs.gov/docs/geologic/northwest_region/ofr95-681.html
 
Natural Aggregate Resources
Natural aggregate consists of rock fragments that are used in their natural state, or are used after mechanical processing such as crushing, washing, and sizing. Crushed stone, and sand and gravel are the two primary sources of natural aggregate. Suitable aggregate consists of clean, uncoated particles of proper size range, shape, physical soundness, hardness and strength, and chemical properties. Crushed stone can substitute for sand and gravel in most applications. Angular particles of crushed stone are desirable in asphaltic mixes, because intergranular contact between the angular particles provides strength. However, the rounded particles of sand and gravel are preferable in cement concrete, because rounded particles improve the workability of the wet concrete.
 
Aggregate Uses, Demand, and Value
Natural aggregate is used primarily in construction and repair of physical-societal infrastructure (buildings, roads, bridges, runways, railways, dams, canals, and sewer systems, for example). Urban areas and highways are major consumers of natural aggregate. Sources are needed near markets, because the product is bulky, low in unit value, and expensive to transport.
 
Crushed Stone
Competent, homogeneous, fine-grained rocks that are not too abrasive and have not been decomposed by weathering generally are preferred as sources of crushed stone for aggregate. For example, limestone, dolomite, and trap rock (basalt or diabase) are good sources of crushed-stone for aggregate. Where these are not locally available, other competent igneous and metamorphic rocks are used. However some volcanic and volcano-sedimentary rocks are soft and friable, and some silicic volcanic rocks tend to react deleteriously when used as aggregate in cement concrete.
 
Sand and Gravel
Sand and gravel deposits consist of rock or mineral fragments in loose, non-cohesive bodies that result from sedimentary processes, including fluvial, lacustrine, marine, eolian and glacial. Sand and gravel aggregate is a mixture (aggregation) of sand and gravel in which gravel constitutes about 25 percent or more of the mixture. Gravel typically occurs in layers or lenses with sand. Sand and gravel deposits are best when they contain little silt. Minor replenishment of sand and gravel deposits may occur, especially during flooding.
 


 
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